Definitions

Venous Insufficiency
Venous insufficiency of the lower extremities is a condition linked to the weakening of the superficial or deep vein walls. It leads to a dysfunction of the internal valves, which interferes with the blood flow returning to the heart and causes the formation of varicose veins.
Venous insufficiency is generally superficial.
Deep venous insufficiency is most of the time secondary to a thrombosis or a congenital defect.

Varicose veins
A visible sign of venous insufficiency, varicose veins are dilated and tortuous veins inside which valves, if they exist, no longer play their anti-reflux role. The enlarged veins are found in the superficial venous system. According to their calibre, one speaks of:

Truncular varicose veins,
Or reticular varicose veins


Muscular hernia not to be confused with varicoses veins

Thread veins
Intra-dermal dilatations of the venous plexus, thread veins are caused by venous hyper-pressure or capillary fragility.
Their calibre is variable:

Red telangiectasia have a small diameter (0.1 to 4mm) and are very superficial.
Blue telangiectasia are located deeper in the dermis and have a more important calibre (0.4 to 2 mm).
Telangectiasia do not only pose a cosmetic problem but may be the sign of a deeper venous deficiency.